Got a hot tip? Pitch us your story idea, share your expertise with SleepFoundation.org, or let us know about your sleep experiences right here.
A good night’s sleep empowers us to recover and to wake up refreshed and ready to take on the day. Unfortunately, many people have sleep problems and don’t get the rest that they need.
Insufficient sleep and poor quality sleep can be the result of diverse factors, including sleep disorders, medical conditions, and mental health. Sleep issues affect people of all ages, and their impacts touch many parts of our lives.
While sleep is too complex to sum up with only numbers, reviewing basic facts and figures about sleep can help you understand how sleep works, why it’s important, and how widespread sleep issues are.
Statistics About How We Sleep
- On average, we spend about two hours per night dreaming.
- In a normal sleep period, a person experiences four to six sleep cycles.
- REM sleep makes up 20% to 25% of total sleep in healthy adults.
- 80.7% of U.S. adults have taken a nap of 10 minutes or longer in the past three months, according to a survey by Sleep Cycle and SleepFoundation.org. | Learn more
- The key driver of the body’s circadian rhythm is the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in the brain, which is made up of around 20,000 neurons .
- 7% of adults nap every day, according to a survey by Sleep Cycle and SleepFoundation.org.
- The average nap is about one hour, or 60.2 minutes, according to a survey by Sleep Cycle and SleepFoundation.org.
- Metabolism drops by around 15% during NREM sleep.
- 53.2% of U.S. adults sleep with their bedroom windows closed, according to a SleepFoundation.org survey, and 60.9% sleep with their door closed. | Learn more
Statistics About Insufficient Sleep and Sleep Inequity
- Short sleep, or less than seven hours of sleep a night, is 10.7% more common among Black adults than whites. Oversleeping, or sleeping more than nine hours per night, is 1.4% more common among Blacks versus whites.
- Adults ages 18 and 64 need seven or more hours of sleep per night. Adults ages 65 or older need seven to eight hours.
- More than one-third of U.S. adults sleep less than seven hours per night, on average.
- Among all states, Hawaii has the highest percentage of adults (43.2%) who get seven or fewer hours of sleep each night. | Learn more
- Among U.S. counties, Boulder County in Colorado has the lowest percentage of adults (23.2%) who get seven or fewer hours of sleep each night.
- 4.8 of 10 U.S. of workers say they are regularly tired during the day, and 6.9 of 10 say they are tired when their work day is done, according to a SleepFoundation.org survey. | Learn more
- 42.6% of single parents sleep less than seven hours per night, compared to 32.7% of adults in two-parent homes and 31% of adults with no children.
- More than twice as many of SIDS deaths occur among non-Hispanic Black, American Indian, and Alaska Native babies per 100,000 live births than non-Hispanic white babies. | Learn more
- 51.2% of short-sleepers say that sleep problems run in their family, according to a SleepFoundation.org survey. | Learn more
- Adults who live near airports are 23% more likely to report insufficient sleep , according to a survey of women.
- Active-duty service members are 34% more likely to report insufficient sleep than people with no history of military service.
- Insufficient sleep has an estimated economic impact of more than $411 billion each year in the United States alone.
- Lack of sleep or poor sleep results in unplanned absences from work that cost the U.S. economy $44.6 billion each year .
- Drowsy driving is responsible for more than 6,000 fatal car crashes every year in the United States.
Statistics About Insomnia, Sleep Apnea, and Other Sleep Disorders
- According to estimates, 50 million to 70 million people in the U.S. have ongoing sleep disorders .
- 9% to 15% of U.S. adults have insomnia that affects their daytime activities.
- Women are 40% more likely to have insomnia than men are.
- Having a sleep disorder during pregnancy may increase the odds of a premature birth by 33.9% . | Learn more
- 76% of U.S. adults with a sleep issue or disorder share a household with at least one other person who does, according to a SleepFoundation.org survey.
- 55% of nurses say they experience insomnia. | Learn more
- 32% of people snore, according to a survey of visitors to SleepFoundation.org. 20.6% of them have been diagnosed with sleep apnea.
- About 44% of men and 28% of women snore.
- 17% of children ages 2 to 14 snore.
- A 10% increase in body weight may make you six times more likely to have OSA.
- Some 0.9% of adults ages 40 and older experience central sleep apnea (CSA).
- You may exert as much as 250 pounds of force of force when you grind your teeth. | Learn more
- Restless legs syndrome (RLS) affects 5% to 10% of adults and 2% to 4% of children . | Learn more
- 1 in every 2,000 adults has narcolepsy. In the U.S., that equates to about 165,950 people.
- People with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are 37.6% more likely than others to have a sleep disorder.
- 66.8% of adults say they have talked in their sleep .
- 22.4% of adults say they have had a sleepwalking episode.
- 7.6% of people have had an episode of sleep paralysis.
Statistics About Sleep Disruptions
- 69% of men ages 40 and older and 76% of women in that age group get up to go to the bathroom at least once per night.
- Jet lag most often affects people when they fly across five or more time zones with jet lag worsening the more time zones that they cross.
- 41% of primary care patients say that they experienced night sweats at least once in a monthlong period.
- 94.8% of adults lose at least an hour of sleep to pain in a given week, according to a SleepFoundation.org survey. | Learn more
- 63% of U.S. adults with heartburn say it has affected their ability to sleep well.
- Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) makes women at least two times as likely to report insomnia-like symptoms before and during their period.
- Around 50% of pregnant women experience insomnia-like symptoms.
- 30% of couples who started sleeping in separate beds cited their sleep habits as the reason, according to a SleepFoundation.org survey | Learn more
Statistics About How Children and Teens Sleep
- Babies up to 1 year old need 12 to 16 hours of sleep each day.
- Children 1 to 2 years old need 11 to 14 hours of sleep each day, and children ages 3 to 5 need 10 to 13 hours.
- Children ages 6 to 12 years old need nine to 12 hours of sleep each day.
- 20% to 30% of children have trouble falling asleep or staying asleep .
- Babies born prematurely may spend around 90% of their day asleep .
- Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is a leading cause of death for babies younger than 1 year old.
- From the ages of 13 to 19, average total sleep per night drops by 40 to 50 minutes .
- 57.8% of middle schoolers and 72.7% of high school students get less than the recommended amount of sleep for their age.
- 30.8% of parents and guardians say their school-age children are not getting enough sleep, according to a SleepFoundation.org survey. | Learn more
- Up to 27% of children have minor and infrequent snoring.
- According to estimates, 10% to 50% of children ages 3 to 6 have occasional nightmares.
- As many as 70% of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have mild to severe sleeping problems.
- Children who lose 39 minutes of sleep or more have a harder time coping at school and typically feel worse than those getting enough sleep.
- 77.9% of adults say getting enough sleep is more important than being successful at a video game, compared to 60.1% of adolescents, according to a SleepFoundation.org survey. | Learn more
- Adolescents push their bedtime back by 16 minutes for every 30 minutes they spend playing video games.
- Kids share a bedroom in 70.4% of U.S. households with two or more children, according to a SleepFoundation.org survey of parents. | Learn more
Statistics About Sleep and Mental Health
- 70% of adults with seasonal affective disorder (SAD) feel tired in the winter, compared to 44.2% of those without it, according to a SleepFoundation.org survey. | Learn more
- 40% of people with insomnia may have a diagnosable mental-health condition.
- 83% of adults with depression may have at least one symptom of insomnia.
- 58.2% of respondents with SAD use sleep aids, compared to 26.3% of those without SAD, according to a SleepFoundation.org survey.
- 54.4% of respondents to a SleepFoundation.org survey say stress and anxiety were the top reasons they have trouble falling asleep. Sunday was the night of the week in which they had the most trouble falling asleep. | Learn more
- As much as 91% of U.S. adults with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have symptoms of insomnia.
- 80% of people with PTSD have nightmares within three months of experiencing trauma.
- Wildfires can cause as much as 134.9 hours of lost sleep per year for a U.S. adult, according to a SleepFoundation.org survey. 76.6% of adults who have lost sleep to wildfires cite anxiety as the reason. | Learn more
- 72.5% of wildfire survivors experience insomnia.
Statistics About Sleep Hygiene
- On average, U.S. adults sleep on their side 54.1% of the time , on their back 37.5% of the time, and on their stomach 7.3%.
- 58.3% of adults who shower or bathe before bed say that doing so helps them sleep, according to a SleepFoundation.org survey. | Learn more
- Watching TV is the top bedtime ritual among U.S. adults, with 52.7% of respondents to a SleepFoundation.org saying they do it before bed. 50.4% of people who watch TV before bed get less than seven hours of sleep. | Learn more
- Drinking more than two servings of alcohol per day for men and more than one serving per day for women can decrease sleep quality by 39.2% .
- 51.2% of U.S. adults who sleep more than normal over Thanksgiving cite overeating and alcohol consumption as the reason, according to a SleepFoundation.org survey. | Learn more
- Adults in the U.S. spend 3 hours, 30 minutes on social media before bed every night, according to a OneCare Media survey for SleepFoundation.org. | Learn more
- YouTube is the most popular social media platform used before bed, with 73.8% of SleepFoundation.org survey respondents using it for at least one minute for an average of 48 minutes a night.
- On average, adults snack before bedtime 3.9 nights each week, according to a SleepFoundation.org survey. Adults who snack on seeds and nuts before bed sleep 32 minutes more, on average, than those who snack on chips, crackers, or pretzels. | Learn more
Statistics About Melatonin and Sleep Aids
- 55.8% of adults have consumed at least one sleep aid in the past month, according to a SleepFoundation.org survey. 49.1% of adults have used melatonin, which is the most popular sleep aid. | Learn more
- The average melatonin dosage for adults is 4.8 milligrams, according to a SleepFoundation.org survey. 71.2% of adults take 5 milligrams of melatonin or less. | Learn more
- 79.4% of adults who take prescription sleep medication experience a residual effect such as oversleeping, feeling groggy, or having a hard time concentrating the next day.
- On average, U.S. adults who take melatonin do it 211 days each year, according to a SleepFoundation.org survey. 38.6% of adults take melatonin every day.
- 8.2% of adults say they took medication to help them sleep at least four times in the past week.
- 20% of U.S. adults use marijuana or cannibidiol (CBD) as a sleep aid. | Learn more
- 88% of adults who take melatonin say it helps them fall asleep faster, according to a SleepFoundation.org survey.
- 23.4% of U.S. adults have taken Benadryl, or diphenhydramine, as a sleep aid in the past month, according to a SleepFoundation.org survey. | Learn more
- Melatonin use increased 425% between 1999 and 2018 among U.S. adults.
- An analysis of U.S. melatonin supplements found that they may include 347% more melatonin per dose than what is on the label. Only 12% of melatonin products’ actual melatonin quantity are within 10% of what is advertised.
- Sleep trackers are projected to become a $11.2 billion business by 2028.
- 28.2% of adults use a cellphone to track their sleep. These include sleep-tracker apps.
If you're ready for more, sign up to receive our email newsletter!
Thanks for the feedback - we're glad you found our work instructive!
Submitting your Answer...
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Strokes (NINDS). (2019, August 13). Brain basics: Understanding Sleep.https://www.ninds.nih.gov/health-information/public-education/brain-basics/brain-basics-understanding-sleep
Patel, A. K., Reddy, V., & Araujo, J. F. (2020). Physiology, Sleep Stages. StatPearls Publishing., Retrieved fromhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK526132/
Division of Sleep Medicine at Harvard Medical School. (2007, December 18). Natural Patterns of Sleep., Retrieved March 24, 2023, fromhttp://healthysleep.med.harvard.edu/healthy/science/what/sleep-patterns-rem-nrem
National Institute of General Medical Sciences. (2022, March 11). Circadian rhythms.https://www.nigms.nih.gov/education/fact-sheets/Pages/circadian-rhythms.aspx
Sharma, S., & Kavuru, M. (2010). Sleep and metabolism: an overview. International journal of endocrinology, 2010, 270832.https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20811596/
Caraballo, C., Mahajan, S., Valero-Elizondo, J., Massey, D., Lu, Y., Roy, B., Riley, C., Annapureddy, A. R., Murugiah, K., Elumn, J., Nasir, K., Nunez-Smith, M., Forman, H. P., Jackson, C. L., Herrin, J., & Krumholz, H. M. (2022). Evaluation of Temporal Trends in Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Sleep Duration Among US Adults, 2004-2018. JAMA network open, 5(4), e226385., Retrieved March 24, 2023, fromhttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35389500/
Consensus Conference Panel, Watson, N. F., Badr, M. S., Belenky, G., Bliwise, D. L., Buxton, O. M., Buysse, D., Dinges, D. F., Gangwisch, J., Grandner, M. A., Kushida, C., Malhotra, R. K., Martin, J. L., Patel, S. R., Quan, S. F., Tasali, E., Non-Participating Observers, Twery, M., Croft, J. B., Maher, E., … Heald, J. L. (2015). Recommended amount of sleep for a healthy adult: A joint consensus statement of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine and Sleep Research Society. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, 11(6), 591–592., Retrieved March 9, 2023, fromhttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25979105/
Liu, Y., Wheaton, A. G., Chapman, D. P., Cunningham, T. J., Lu, H., & Croft, J. B. (2016). Prevalence of healthy sleep duration among adults–United States, 2014. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 65(6), 137–141., Retrieved March 24, 2023, fromhttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26890214/
County Health Rankings. (n.d.). Hawaii: Insufficient Sleep., Retrieved March 24, 2023, fromhttps://www.countyhealthrankings.org/explore-health-rankings/hawaii?year=2022&measure=Insufficient+Sleep*
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Population Health. (2006). 500 Cities Project Data [online]. Accessed Oct 22, 2020 from, Retrieved March 27, 2023, fromhttps://www.cdc.gov/places/
Nugent CN, Black LI. (2016). Sleep duration, quality of sleep, and use of sleep medication, by sex and family type, 2013–2014. NCHS data brief, no 230. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics., Retrieved October 22, 2020, fromhttps://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/databriefs/db230.pdf.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021, June 15). Data and Statistics for SIDS and SUID | CDC., Retrieved March 29, 2023, fromhttps://www.cdc.gov/sids/data.htm
Bozigar, M., Huang, T., Redline, S., Hart, J. E., Grady, S. T., Nguyen, D. D., James, P., Nicholas, B., Levy, J. I., Laden, F., & Peters, J. L. (2023). Associations between Aircraft Noise Exposure and Self-Reported Sleep Duration and Quality in the United States-Based Prospective Nurses’ Health Study Cohort. Environmental Health Perspectives, 131(4), 47010., Retrieved May 2, 2023, fromhttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/37058435/
Chapman, D. P., Liu, Y., McKnight-Eily, L. R., Croft, J. B., Holt, J. B., Balkin, T. J., & Giles, W. H. (2015). Daily insufficient sleep and active duty status. Military medicine, 180(1), 68–76.https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25562860/
Hafner, M., Stepanek, M., Taylor, J., Troxel, W. M., & van Stolk, C. (2017). Why Sleep Matters-The Economic Costs of Insufficient Sleep: A Cross-Country Comparative Analysis. Rand health quarterly, 6(4), 11.https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28983434/
American Academy of Sleep Medicine Board of Directors, Watson, N. F., Morgenthaler, T., Chervin, R., Carden, K., Kirsch, D., Kristo, D., Malhotra, R., Martin, J., Ramar, K., Rosen, I., Weaver, T., & Wise, M. (2015). Confronting Drowsy Driving: The American Academy of Sleep Medicine Perspective. Journal of clinical sleep medicine : JCSM : official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine, 11(11), 1335–1336.https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26414989/
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI). (2022, March 24). Sleep deprivation and deficiency., Retrieved March 29, 2023, fromhttps://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health-topics/sleep-deprivation-and-deficiency
Kline, L. R. (2023, January 13). Clinical presentation and diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea in adults. In N. Collop (Ed.). UpToDate., Retrieved March 27, 2023, fromhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/clinical-presentation-and-diagnosis-of-obstructive-sleep-apnea-in-adults
Mong, J. A., & Cusmano, D. M. (2016). Sex differences in sleep: impact of biological sex and sex steroids. Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences, 371(1688), 20150110.https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26833831/
Felder, J. N., Baer, R. J., Rand, L., Jelliffe-Pawlowski, L. L., & Prather, A. A. (2017). Sleep Disorder Diagnosis During Pregnancy and Risk of Preterm Birth. Obstetrics and gynecology, 130(3), 573–581., Retrieved May 18, 2023, fromhttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28796676/
Witkoski Stimpfel, A., Ghazal, L., Goldsamt, L., & Vaughan Dickson, V. (2022). Individual and Work Factors Associated with Psychosocial Health of Registered Nurses During the Covid-19 Pandemic: A Mixed Methods Study. Journal of occupational and environmental medicine, 64(6), 515–524.https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35081585/
Young, T., Palta, M., Dempsey, J., Skatrud, J., Weber, S., & Badr, S. (1993). The occurrence of sleep-disordered breathing among middle-aged adults. The New England journal of medicine, 328(17), 1230–1235.https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8464434/
Archbold, K. H., Pituch, K. J., Panahi, P., & Chervin, R. D. (2002). Symptoms of sleep disturbances among children at two general pediatric clinics. The Journal of pediatrics, 140(1), 97–102., Retrieved March 29, 2023, fromhttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11815771/
Peppard, P. E., Young, T., Palta, M., Dempsey, J., & Skatrud, J. (2000). Longitudinal study of moderate weight change and sleep-disordered breathing. JAMA, 284(23), 3015–3021.http://jama.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?doi=10.1001/jama.284.23.3015
Donovan, L. M., & Kapur, V. K. (2016). Prevalence and Characteristics of Central Compared to Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Analyses from the Sleep Heart Health Study Cohort. Sleep, 39(7), 1353–1359.https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27166235/
Hennessey, B. J. (2020, June). Teeth grinding. Merck Manual Consumer Version.https://www.msdmanuals.com/home/mouth-and-dental-disorders/symptoms-of-oral-and-dental-disorders/teeth-grinding
MedlinePlus: National Library of Medicine (US). (2018, May 1). Restless legs syndrome., Retrieved March 27, 2023, fromhttps://medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/restless-legs-syndrome/
Genetics Home Reference. (2018, June 1). Narcolepsy. MedlinePlus., Retrieved March 13, 2023, fromhttps://medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/narcolepsy/
Wang, B., Duan, R., & Duan, L. (2018). Prevalence of sleep disorder in irritable bowel syndrome: A systematic review with meta-analysis. Saudi journal of gastroenterology : official journal of the Saudi Gastroenterology Association, 24(3), 141–150., Retrieved March 27, 2023, fromhttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29652034/
Bjorvatn, B., Grønli, J., & Pallesen, S. (2010). Prevalence of different parasomnias in the general population. Sleep medicine, 11(10), 1031–1034.https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21093361/
National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention. (2020, May 19). High Blood Pressure Symptoms and Causes.https://www.cdc.gov/bloodpressure/about.htm
Sharpless, B. A., & Barber, J. P. (2011). Lifetime prevalence rates of sleep paralysis: a systematic review. Sleep medicine reviews, 15(5), 311–315.https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21571556/
Weiss J. P. (2012). Nocturia: focus on etiology and consequences. Reviews in urology, 14(3-4), 48–55.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3602727/
Herxheimer A. (2014). Jet lag. BMJ Clinical Evidence, 2014, 2303.https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24780537/
Mold, J. W., Mathew, M. K., Belgore, S., & DeHaven, M. (2002). Prevalence of night sweats in primary care patients: An OKPRN and TAFP-Net collaborative study. The Journal of Family Practice, 51(5), 452–456.https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12019054/
Shaker, R., Castell, D. O., Schoenfeld, P. S., & Spechler, S. J. (2003). Nighttime heartburn is an under-appreciated clinical problem that impacts sleep and daytime function: the results of a Gallup survey conducted on behalf of the American Gastroenterological Association. The American journal of gastroenterology, 98(7), 1487–1493.https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12873567/
Baker, F. C., Sassoon, S. A., Kahan, T., Palaniappan, L., Nicholas, C. L., Trinder, J., & Colrain, I. M. (2012). Perceived poor sleep quality in the absence of polysomnographic sleep disturbance in women with severe premenstrual syndrome. Journal of sleep research, 21(5), 535–545.https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22417163/
Kızılırmak, A., Timur, S., & Kartal, B. (2012). Insomnia in pregnancy and factors related to insomnia. TheScientificWorldJournal, 2012, 197093.https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22623880/
Paruthi, S., Brooks, L. J., D’Ambrosio, C., Hall, W. A., Kotagal, S., Lloyd, R. M., Malow, B. A., Maski, K., Nichols, C., Quan, S. F., Rosen, C. L., Troester, M. M., & Wise, M. S. (2016). Recommended Amount of Sleep for Pediatric Populations: A Consensus Statement of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. Journal of clinical sleep medicine : JCSM : official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine, 12(6), 785–786., Retrieved March 27, 2023, fromhttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27250809/
Owens, J. A. (2020, August 18). Behavioral sleep problems in children. In R. D. Chervin (Ed.). UpToDate., Retrieved March 27, 2023, fromhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/behavioral-sleep-problems-in-children
Bennet, L., Walker, D. W., & Horne, R. (2018). Waking up too early – the consequences of preterm birth on sleep development. The Journal of physiology, 596(23), 5687–5708.https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29691876/
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Infant mortality. (June 22, 2022). Retrieved July 8, 2022., Retrieved March 29, 2023, fromhttps://www.cdc.gov/reproductivehealth/maternalinfanthealth/infantmortality.htm
Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on Sleep Medicine and Research. (2006). Functional and Economic Impact of Sleep Loss and Sleep-Related Disorders. In H. R. Colten & B. M. Altevogt (Eds.), Sleep Disorders and Sleep Deprivation: An Unmet Public Health Problem (pp. 137–172)., Retrieved March 29, 2023, fromhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK19958/
Wheaton, A. G., Jones, S. E., Cooper, A. C., Croft, J. B. (2018). Short sleep duration among middle school and high school students — United States, 2015. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 67, 85-90.https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/67/wr/mm6703a1.htm?s_cid=mm6703a1_w
Zhang, G., Spickett, J., Rumchev, K., Lee, A. H., & Stick, S. (2004). Snoring in primary school children and domestic environment: a Perth school based study. Respiratory research, 5(1), 19.https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15527500/
American Academy of Sleep Medicine. (2014). The International Classification of Sleep Disorders – Third Edition (ICSD-3). Darien, IL., Retrieved March 28, 2023, fromhttps://aasm.org/
Esposito, S., Laino, D., D’Alonzo, R., Mencarelli, A., Di Genova, L., Fattorusso, A., Argentiero, A., & Mencaroni, E. (2019). Pediatric sleep disturbances and treatment with melatonin. Journal of translational medicine, 17(1), 77.https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30871585/
Taylor, R. W., Haszard, J. J., Jackson, R., Morrison, S., Beebe, D. W., Meredith-Jones, K. A., Elder, D. E., & Galland, B. C. (2023). Effect of Sleep Changes on Health-Related Quality of Life in Healthy Children: A Secondary Analysis of the DREAM Crossover Trial. JAMA network open, 6(3), e233005.https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36920394/
Pillion, M., Gradisar, M., Bartel, K., Whittall, H., & Kahn, M. (2022). What’s “app”-ning to adolescent sleep? Links between device, app use, and sleep outcomes. Sleep medicine, 100, 174–182., Retrieved March 27, 2023, fromhttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36084495/
Ford, D. E., & Kamerow, D. B. (1989). Epidemiologic study of sleep disturbances and psychiatric disorders. An opportunity for prevention?. JAMA, 262(11), 1479–1484., Retrieved March 27, 2023, fromhttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/2769898/
Nutt, D., Wilson, S., & Paterson, L. (2008). Sleep disorders as core symptoms of depression. Dialogues in clinical neuroscience, 10(3), 329–336.https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18979946/
Maher, M. J., Rego, S. A., & Asnis, G. M. (2006). Sleep disturbances in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder: epidemiology, impact and approaches to management. CNS drugs, 20(7), 567–590., Retrieved March 27, 2023, fromhttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16800716/
Isaac, F., Toukhsati, S. R., Di Benedetto, M., & Kennedy, G. A. (2021, September 27). A systematic review of the impact of wildfires on sleep disturbances. International journal of environmental research and public health.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8508521/
Skarpsno, E. S., Mork, P. J., Nilsen, T., & Holtermann, A. (2017). Sleep positions and nocturnal body movements based on free-living accelerometer recordings: Association with demographics, lifestyle, and insomnia symptoms. Nature and Science of Sleep, 9, 267–275.https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29138608/
Pietilä, J., Helander, E., Korhonen, I., Myllymäki, T., Kujala, U. M., & Lindholm, H. (2018). Acute Effect of Alcohol Intake on Cardiovascular Autonomic Regulation During the First Hours of Sleep in a Large Real-World Sample of Finnish Employees: Observational Study. JMIR mental health, 5(1), e23.https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29549064/
Fitzgerald, T., & Vietri, J. (2015). Residual Effects of Sleep Medications Are Commonly Reported and Associated with Impaired Patient-Reported Outcomes among Insomnia Patients in the United States. Sleep disorders, 2015, 607148.https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26783470/
U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2019, December 13). QuickStats: Percentage of Adults Aged ≥18 Years Who Took Medication To Help Fall or Stay Asleep Four or More Times in the Past Week, by Sex and Age Group — National Health Interview Survey, United States, 2017–2018. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2019;68:1150.https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/68/wr/mm6849a5.htm?s_cid=mm6849a5_w
American Academy of Sleep Medicine. (n.d.). AASM sleep prioritization survey: Sleep aid use.https://aasm.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/06/sleep-prioritization-survey-sleep-aids.pdf
Li, J., Somers, V. K., Xu, H., Lopez-Jimenez, F., & Covassin, N. (2022). Trends in Use of Melatonin Supplements Among US Adults, 1999-2018. JAMA, 327(5), 483–485.https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2788539
Ltd, R. a. M. (n.d.). Global Smart Sleep Tracking Products Market Analysis 2019-2028. Research and Markets Ltd 2023.https://www.researchandmarkets.com/reports/5624587/global-smart-sleep-tracking-products-market
Robbins, R., Krebs, P., Rapoport, D. M., Jean-Louis, G., & Duncan, D. T. (2019). Examining Use of Mobile Phones for Sleep Tracking Among a National Sample in the USA. Health communication, 34(5), 545–551.https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29334765/