Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is defined as “the sudden and unexpected death of an infant under 12 months of age that remains unexplained after a review of the clinical history, complete autopsy and death scene investigation.” Also known as crib death or cot death, SIDS is part of a larger subset of conditions known as sudden unexpected infant death (SUID).
Roughly 1,360 deaths were attributed to SIDS in 2017. Most of these deaths occurred between the ages of one and six months. While its specific cause is largely unknown, parents can reduce the risk of SIDS by preparing and maintaining a safe sleeping area for their infant. Read on to learn more about SIDS and how you can ensure the utmost safety for your sleeping infant.
Recent studies suggest the following factors can put infants at greater risk of SIDS:
Some SIDS risks are suspected, but have not been studied extensively enough to draw a firm conclusion. For instance, studies have identified poor bedroom ventilation as a potential risk factor for SIDS, but more research is needed regarding this topic.
Other risk factors have been largely debunked. One prominent example is vaccines. Many infants receive several vaccines within the first six months of their life, when SIDS is most likely to occur. A wave of SIDS deaths occurred in the late 1970s, and at the time some suspected the deaths were related to the diphtheria-tetanus toxoids-pertussis vaccine. However, subsequent studies note there is no relationship between SIDS and any vaccines.
In 1994, the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and the U.S. National Institute of Health spearheaded the “Back to Sleep” initiative to educate parents about SIDS and its risk factors. The campaign was based on a 1992 recommendation from the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), which stated infants were safest while sleeping on their back or side. This recommendation was later updated to state that only the back position was safe. Today, the same program operates under the name “Safe to Sleep.”
In 1992, 120 infants died from SIDS per 100,000 live births. From 1992 to 2001, SIDS deaths in the U.S. decreased by 53 percent. This number remained constant for several years, and then further declines were reported between 2009 and 2013. As of 2017, the number of SIDS deaths per 100,000 live births has fallen below 40. Some studies suggest the decrease in SIDS cases is related to the growing number of parents who place their infants in the back sleeping position.
However, SIDS remains the leading cause of death for infants between the ages of 28 days and one year. Furthermore, some statistical studies have found disparities between different racial and ethnic groups. In surveys of mothers with varying racial and ethnic backgrounds, researchers have noted certain trends regarding co-sleeping with infants, placing infants on their backs for sleep, and the use of soft bedding in cribs. Socioeconomic factors may also be at play, as low-income families with more than one small child may resort to crib-sharing or bed-sharing in order to save space.
Boys are slightly more likely to die of SIDS than infant girls. Historically, it was believed infants were at higher risk of SIDS during colder times of the year, but more recent statistics show SIDS deaths are distributed more evenly between hotter and colder months.
While much is still unknown about the cause of SIDS, today’s experts advise parents to take the following measures in order to reduce their child’s risk of SIDS.
Furthermore, the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) offers the following SIDS prevention guidelines for cribs and bassinets:
When can my infant sleep on their side or stomach?
According to current guidelines, infants should continue to be placed to sleep in the supine (back) position until they reach at least one year of age. Once an infant can roll from the prone (stomach) to supine (back) position and from the supine position to the prone position without assistance, the infant should be safe to sleep in any position they prefer.
Isn’t side sleeping healthier for newborns?
There is a persistent belief among U.S. infant caregivers and nursery staff that positioning newborns on their side helps clear amniotic fluid from their airway. However, the AAP states there is no evidence the side position is more beneficial in this regard. Parents should place their baby in the supine position as soon as the child can sleep in a crib or bassinet. Skin-to-skin care is recommended from the time the mother awakes after giving birth until the infant is ready for a crib or bassinet.
If I use a baby monitor, can I place my infant’s crib/bassinet in a separate room?
Many infants who die from SIDS do so without making noise or struggling. Therefore, a baby monitor – particularly one without video surveillance – may not alert you of hazardous situations. Most experts agree sharing a room with your baby’s crib or bassinet is the safest method for at least the first 6 months of life, if not the first year.
Will drinking a little bit in the first trimester increase my infant’s risk of SIDS?
The information and data pertaining to drinking during pregnancy can be somewhat conflicting. According to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), women should not consume alcohol at any point of their pregnancy, including the time of conception. Alcohol consumption is considered a major risk factor for SIDS.
Where can I find a safe crib or bassinet for my child?
As of 2011, crib manufacturers must adhere to specific guidelines mandated by the CPSC. However, you should keep in mind that the mattress you choose for your child is also crucial to reducing their risk of SIDS. Refer to these crib safety mandates and the additional CPSC guidelines listed earlier in this guide when determining whether a crib or bassinet is safe for your child.