Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a serious, but treatable condition. The key to living with RLS is managing the symptoms. Lifestyle changes, like limiting caffeine and alcohol, taking iron supplements or a hot bath, or initiating an exercise plan, and seeing a heath care professional to discuss treatment options can help. Everyone experiences RLS differently, so it is important to work with your health care professional to determine the best way for you to control your symptoms. A detailed list of some other lifestyle changes you and your health care professional may want to consider include:
- Checking to see if there is an underlying iron or vitamin deficiency and then possibly supplementing your diet with iron, vitamin B12 or folate.
- Looking at medications you may be taking which could make RLS symptoms worse. These may include drugs used to treat high blood pressure, heart conditions, nausea, colds, allergies, and depression.
- Looking at any herbal and over-the-counter medicines you may be taking to see if they could be worsening your RLS.
- Identifying habits and activities that worsen RLS symptoms.
- Looking at your diet to assure it is healthy and balanced.
- Eliminating or lessening your alcohol intake.
- Looking at various activities that may help you personally deal with RLS.
- These could include walking, stretching, taking a hot or cold bath, massage, acupressure, or relaxation techniques.
- Also keeping your mind engaged with activities like discussions, needlework or video games when you have to stay seated.
- Implementing a program of good sleep habits.
- Reducing or eliminating caffeine from your diet to aid in general sleep hygiene.
Foot Wrap Treatment For RLS
Using a specially designed foot wrap at night may help alleviate the symptoms of RLS. Before sleep, the wrap is placed on the foot and applies continuous pressure to targeted foot muscles. This device is thought to work by signaling the brain to relax the muscles of the leg and relieve the sensations of RLS.
Initial research found that patients who used the foot wrap reported a significant reduction in symptoms and lost significantly less sleep when using the device. This is a non-pharmacological (drug-free) treatment, so it doesn’t cause the adverse side effects that can be associated with some of the RLS medications. Patients in the initial study noted mild side effects that were solved by loosening the straps.
This RLS treatment is cleared by the FDA and available by prescription from your doctor.
Vein Treatment for RLS
98% of patients affected by RLS in a recent study found symptom relief after treating varicose veins in their legs with non-surgical sclerotherapy*. Many physicians believe that it is the underlying vein problems that are causing the Restless Leg Syndrome, and by treating this with an outpatient procedure, patients can get relief.
How it works: Varicose veins are caused by unhealthy valves within the veins. When these valves fail or leak, the blood falls backward through the poorly functioning valves causing the blood to pool and appear enlarged, twisted or bulging. Scientists first theorized a connection with RLS due to the similar side effects of varicose vein sufferers including pain, fatigue, itching, burning, cramping, restlessness and throbbing.
The modern treatments for varicose veins (and the corresponding RLS symptoms) are highly effective, and don’t require surgery. A specialist called a Phlebologist does a procedure called sclerotherapy, which has little to no pain, and usually takes an hour. The patient is able to walk afterwards and then resume normal activities.
Drugs Approved to Treat RLS
- Horizant® (gabapentin enacarbil) was approved by the FDA in 2011 for the treatment of moderate-to-severe primary RLS.
- Mirapex® was approved by the FDA in 2006 for the treatment of moderate-to-severe primary RLS.
- Requip® (ropinirole hydrochloride), a drug commonly used to treat Parkinson disease, was given FDA approval at lower doses for the treatment of moderate-to-severe primary RLS in 2005.
All three drugs may cause side effects, such as sedation, nausea and dizziness and may cause patients to fall asleep without any warning, even while doing normal daily activities such as driving.
In addition to Horizant®, Requip®, and Mirapex®, there are several drugs approved for other conditions that have been shown to alleviate RLS symptoms. They are:
- Dopaminergic agonists -- reduce RLS symptoms
- Dopaminergic agents -- reduce RLS symptoms
- Benzodiazepines -- allow for a more restful sleep
- Opiates -- induce relaxation and diminish pain
Side Effects of RLS Drugs
Side effects of RLS drug therapy may include daytime sleepiness (dopaminergic agonists and benzodiazepines), hallucinations and nausea (dopaminergic agents) or constipation and dependency (opiates). Before taking any medication, discuss the possibility of side effects with your doctor.
In 1996, Drs. Allen and Earley from Johns Hopkins University described a phenomenon called augmentation, in which RLS symptoms are more severe, spread to parts of the body other than the legs, and begin earlier in the evening as a result of taking dopaminergic agents to treat RLS symptoms. If augmentation occurs it can be managed with dose and medication adjustments.
Home Treatment of RLS
There are also a number of self-directed activities for managing the symptoms of RLS including walking, massaging the legs, stretching, hot or cold packs, vibration, and acupressure. Practicing relaxation techniques such as meditation or yoga have been known to alleviate symptoms. For many people, treating an underlying cause or effective pharmacological treatment of primary RLS and implementation of coping strategies provides relief from most symptoms. However, sometimes medications need to be changed over time or doses adjusted and regular consultation with a physician is recommended.